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As we all know that letters combine into words and the words constitute sentences.Thus, all languages are based on letters such as English has 26, Turkish has 29 characters etc. However ancient Egyptian writings were based on more than 2000 hieroglyphics. The basic hieroglyphic characters refered as alphabets. They spelled everything with those characters that cannot be indicated by other letters.


It is an interesting anecdote that all pagan temples were closed due to Byzantine Emperor Theodosius I ‘s orders in AD 391. This unfortunate situation caused loss of 4thousand years old tradition and culture. The language that was developed by ancient Egyptian was not used for 1500 years.

According to ancient Egyptians, hieroglyphs were the words of god so they were sacred characters which were mostly used by priests.The monuments and the walls of the temples were also decorated by hieroglyphs. Also, usage of ink on papyrus or carving into the stones were seen as well.

As in other languages, the words of Egyptians were consisted of consonants and vowels. However the writing of Egyptians omitted  the vowels. So the pronunciation of this ancient language is almost impossible for someone who have not heard it before. But also, how you use the sound was more important than how you spell it. Shortly, the pronunciation of this language was the fundamental element. Moreover, the hieroglyphs  were written in rows or columns and from left to the right or from right to the left. To determine which way that you suppose to begin, following the head of animal or human figures were enough. They faced towards the beginning of the line. If they were facing towards to the right that means that inscriptions should read from right to the left.

I put below the signs those represent the sound of each consonant. Those glyphs were translated into the modern alphabet.

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