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Cave paintings consists of painted and engraved works on cave walls or ceilings. The earliest examples of those were seen at Aurignacian times which was almost 35,000 years ago. According to evidences, they did not produce them to decorate their living areas, it was possible to make them as communicational or religious purposes.

The cave painting was seemed to start at Aurignacian times however it reached it higher level with the Magdalenian art system. Magdalenians were one of the latest cultures which represented the upper paleolithic cultural development in western Europe. Lascaux includes one of the most well-known examples of Magdalenian cave art.

The subject matter of the cave paintings were mostly portraying geometrical figures, various animals in different actions, human hands, some different animal species and even signs. Finger drawing on soft clayey surface or following hand marks or claw marks were their techniques to produce this art. They used some materials like flakes of sharp flint and stone picks.

I think innovation process of color for painting was pretty cool. Firstly red, iron oxide and black were used. Black was discovered, juniper or pine carbon which were the sources of black were discovered, vice versa. White was discovered from kaolin or mica. In addition, Magdalenian were used brown and the yellow as they are seen above. They also created some tools to mix them inside and produce more variations of them. For instance, at Lascaux, pestles were found to mixed the colors. The mixture maintained more than 150different mineral fragments. Shells,even human skulls were used as containers while cave water and calcium were used as mixers, plus, vegetable and animal oils as binder.

Unfortunally, cave paintings were mostly fragile. They effected from physical conditions rapidly. When a cave is opened, the surviving ability of the paintings are changed and it deteriorates. Only Altamira Cave in Spain is the finest one which is opened for some special meetings for brief periods.

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